is a monoterpenoid C-10
(branched) alcohol found widely as a chief constituent
in essential oils including ilang-ilang oil,
orange flower oil,
hops oil, and lavender oil. It is a clear
to pale-yellow liquid; boiling point
230 C; insoluble in water; soluble in alcohol, ether and most common organic solvents.
It is the major constituent of rose-like odor. It is
used in perfumery
and flavoring. Nerol is the cis-isomer of geraniol. Geranial and neral are the corresponding
aldehydes. Citronellol is the dihydrogeraniol and citronellal is the corresponding
aldehyde. Citral is the mixture of geranial (trans-citral, called citral A)
and neral (cis--citral, called citral A). Citral is the major constituent of emongrass oil,
lemon oil, nikkel oil, lime oil, ginger oil, and other plant
essential oils. It is the main source of lemon odor. Neral has a less intense,
but sweeter. Citral is also used as a flavor. Citral is used as a raw material
in the synthesis
ionone which is a perfumery and flavoring component itself and used in the production
of retinol. Geraniol
is a pheromone of certain species of bees,
being secreted by the scent glands of worker bees to signal the location of nectar-bearing flowers
and the entrances to their hives. Geraniol
also find an application as
an insect repellants or deterrants.
Citronella is the common name for a grassa,Cymbopogon nardus, which is native to
India and southeast Asia. Citronella oil is a yellowish essential oil distilled
from the leaves of either of two grasses, Cymbopogon nardus or C. winterianus.
This aromatic oil is inexpensive, and widely used in cheap perfumes and as a
fragrance in soaps. It is also best known as an insect repellent. Citronellal,
the main component of citronella oil,
is a clear to yellow oily liquid; boils at 206 C;
soluble in alcohol and fixed oils; insoluble in glycerin and water. It is a
component of balm mint.
It is used in perfumery and flavoring
(sweet, floral, rose, waxy, citrus, green).