FUROSEMIDE

2-Furfurylamino-4-chloro-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid; 4-Chloro-5-sulfamoyl-N-furfuryl-anthranilic acid; 4-Chloro-N-(2-furylmethyl)-5-sulfamoylanthranilic acid; 4-Chloro-N-furfuryl-5-sulfamoylanthranilic acid; 5-(Aminosulfonyl)-4-chloro-2-((2-furanylmethyl)amino)benzoic acid; Aisemide; Chlor-N-(2-furylmethyl)-5-sulfamylanthranilsaeure; Frusemide: Fursemide:

FUROSEMIDE

 

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

CAS RN

54-31-9; 41733-55-5 (hydrochloride)

EINECS RN

200-203-6

FORMULA

C12H11ClN2O5S

MOLE WEIGHT

330.74

CHEMICAL FAMILY

benzoic-sulfonamide-furan
RELATED CATEGORIES

Loop diuretic; antihypertensive / Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors

 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL STATE

White to slightly yellow crystalline powder; odorless.

MELTING POINT

203 - 206 C (Decomposes)

BOILING POINT

 

DENSITY

 

SOLUBILITY IN WATER

Insoluble (Insoluble in dichloromethane; slightly soluble in chloroform; sparingly soluble in alcohol; slightly soluble in ether; soluble in methanol; freely soluble in acetone, in dimethylformamide, disolves in dilute solution of alkali hydroxides)

pH

5 (aqueous solution)

VAPOR DENSITY

 

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 

FLASH POINT

 

 

STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
STABILITY Stable under normal conditions

INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS

Strong oxidizing agents

DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS

Carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides (NOx), Sulfur oxides, Hydrogen chloride gas

POLYMERIZATION

will nor occur

TOXICITY

Oral Rat: LD50: 2600 mg/kg, Oral Mouse: LD50: 2200 mg/kg

 

SAFETY

HAZARD NOTES

This substance is not classified as dangerous

EYE

May cause eye irritation. In case of eye contact, flush eyes with water as a precaution.

SKIN

May be harmful if absorbed through skin. May cause skin irritation. In case of skin contact, wash off with soap and plenty of water.

INGESTION

May be harmful if swallowed. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Rinse mouth with water.

INHALATION

May cause irritation. May cause respiratory tract irritation. If breathed in, move person into fresh air.

TARGET ORGANS

Liver, Kidney, ears, Male reproductive system.

 

TRANSPORT & REGULATORY INFORMATION

UN NO.

 
HAZARD CLASS

 

PACKING GROUP

 

HAZARD SYMBOL

T

RISK PHRASES

61

SAFETY PHRASES

22-36/37-53-45-53

 

EXTERNAL LINKS & GENERAL DESCRIPTION

Wikipedia Linking: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Furosemide

Furosemide is one of the most effective & least toxic diuretics used in pediatric practice. Experimental & clinical data suggest that adrenocorticosteroids &/or endogenous ouabain-like substances may play an important role in its diuretic effect. Also, the drug appears to have anti-inflammatory properties. In children with different diseases who received orally or iv 1-2 mg/kg doses of furosemide, a statistically significant positive linear relationship was found between the drug urinary excretion rate & the urine flow rate, but log dose-response curves to the drug were found to vary depending on the disease & the route of the drug admin. No sigmoid-shaped log dose-response curve (ie, one approaching a zero response at very low furosemide urinary excretion rates & a max response at very high excretion rates) was attained, which may suggest that the capacity of the kidney tubules to respond diuretically to the aforementioned doses of furosemide was not exceeded in these patients. The pharmacologic effects of furosemide are similar to those of ethacrynic acid. The exact mode of action of furosemide has not been clearly defined; in contrast to ethacrynic acid, it does not bind sulfhydryl groups of renal cellular proteins. Furosemide inhibits the reabsorption of electrolytes in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle. The drug also decreases reabsorption of sodium and chloride and increases potassium excretion in the distal renal tubule and exerts a direct effect on electrolyte transport at the proximal tubule. Furosemide does not inhibit carbonic anhydrase and is not an aldosterone antagonist. (http://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/)

In the presence of ouabain both ethacrynic acid and furosemide exerted similar effects on sodium outflux, inhibiting approximately 0.5 mmoles/L of cells per hr. This component of sodium outflux has been called outflux-fraction II. Ethacrynic acid showed no inhibitory potency when ouabain and furosemide were present, thereby suggesting that the same outflux component (fraction II) was affected by ethacrynic acid and by furosemide. In addition, furosemide reduced sodium influx to the same extent that it reduced sodium outflux. Outflux-fraction II, as defined by furosemide, did not contribute a net sodium outflux. These results of sodium outflux and influx experiments confirm the existence of a transport pathway which does not contribute to net flux and which fits the definition of exchange diffusion. (http://www.jci.org/)

The physiological effects of furosemide, a new diuretic agent chemically related to thiazide diuretics, have been evaluated in seven normal subjects and in 39 patients with edema of varied origin. The compound exhibited an unusually broad dose-response curve so that increasing diuresis could be induced with oral doses of from 40 mg once daily to 600 mg three times daily. At the higher dosages furosemide was significantly more effective than conventional thiazide diuretics and exhibited an order of potency which can be achieved with ethacrynic acid. In many of its diuretic properties furosemide resembled thiazide agents. The natriuresis and diuresis which it produced was associated with a disproportionate loss of chloride and potassium and the consequent production of degrees of hypokalemic alkalosis. (http://circ.ahajournals.org/)

 

SALES SPECIFICATION

APPEARANCE

white to off-white crystalline powder

IDENTIFICATION

Pass Test IR, UV

ASSAY

98.5 - 101.0%
HEAVY METALS 20ppm max

SULFATES

300ppm max

CHLORIDE

200ppm max

SULFATED ASH

0.1% max

LOSS ON DRYING

0.5% max

RELATED SUBSTANCES

Individual impurity: 0.1% max
Total impuriry: 0.5% max 

MICROBIOLOGY

Total Bacterial counts: 100CFU/g max
Mould and yeast: 10CFU/g max
Pathogens: Absent

RESIDUAL SOLVENTS Methylene Chloride: 600ppm max

 

PRICE

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