Sulfonic acid is
a compound with general formula RSO2OH, where R is an
aliphatic or aromatic hydrocarbon. It is a derivative of sulfuric acid
(HOSO2OH) where an OH has
been replaced by a carbon group or a compound where a hydrogen atom has been
replaced by treatment with sulfuric acid; for example, benzene is converted to
benzenesulfonic acid (water-soluble). Sulfonic acid has a sulfur atom bonded to
a carbon atom of a hydrocarbon and bonded also to three oxygen atoms, one of
which has been attached to a hydrogen atom.
Sulfonic acid is acidic due to the
hydrogen atom, stronger than a carboxylic acid. Sulfonic acid is one of the most
important organo sulfur compounds in organic synthesis. Sulfonic acids are used
as catalysts in esterification, alkylation and condensation reactions.
Sulfonates are salts or esters of sulfonic acid. Sulfonic salts are soluble in
water. Sulfonic acid and its salts present in organic dyes provide useful
function of water solubility and or improve the washfastness of dyes due to
their capabiltity of binding more tightly to the fabric.
They are widely used in
the detergent industry. Alkylbenzene sulfonic acid is the largest-volume
synthetic surfactant because of its relatively low cost, good performance, the
fact that it can be dried to a stable powder and the biodegradable environmental
friendliness. Sulfonate cleaners do not form an insoluble precipitates in hard
water. Sulfonic acid salts and esters are intermediates widely used in organic
synthesis and particularly phenolic compounds and cation exchange resins. They
are synthetic intermediates for a number of biologically active compounds and
pharmaceutical candidates such as sulfa drugs.
Benzenesulfonic acid consumption is linked mostly to phenol and
resorcinol production with
sodium hydroxide. It is used as a catalyst for dehydration and used in
solidifying resins. It is a base material for electroplating solutions.
Benzenesulfonic acid, or a derivative thereof, is used as a synthetic
intermediate for a number of chemical families of pharmaceuticals, pesticides,
dyes, pigments, fluorescent brighteners, and other organic compounds. Commercially, benzenesulfonic acid sodium salt is more common due to high
deliquescence of the base material. Benzenesulfonyl hloride readily reacts with amines and metals.
It serves as a protecting group which
is readily cleaved.
Xylenesulfonic acid and its salts are are hydrotropic solvents
used in detergents, shampoos, degreasing compounds and printing pastes. They are
used to extract pentosans and lignin in the paper industry and as an additive
The term of tosyl is for p-toluene sulfonic acid ester functional group, the
conjugate base of the strong acid, p-toluenesulfonic acid. The tosyl group, like
other sulfonates, has electron-withdrawing properties. It is a highly reactive
leaving group due to the stability of resonance structure. It has a distributed
negative charge rather than a localized charge. Each oxygen atom bears one-third
of the total negative charge. The tosyl group serves as a protecting group which
is readily cleaved.
Toluenesulfonate esters are useful for the application as alkylating agents in
organic synthesis. p-Toluenesulfonic acid is used as a non-oxidizing catalyst
in the manufacture of plasticizers It is used as a curing agent for
epoxy-phenolic resins. Toluene sulfonic acids are used in preparing hydrazine
based blowing agents such as p-Toluenesulfonylhydrazide, p,p'-Oxybis(benzenesulfonylhydrazide), p-Toluenesulfonyl acetone hydrazone. Toluene
sulfonic acids and their derivatives are used as intermediates for the synthesis of isocyanate
compounds used as water scavengers and catalysts for the production of
thermosetting resins. They are synthetic intermediates for a number of
biologically active compounds, pharmaceuticals, herbicides, dyes and pigments candidates.
Toluene sulfonic acids are used in the production of toluenesulfonamide which
has been used as the parent material for the production of saccharin. o-Toluenesulfonamide has been the parent material for the production of
saccharin. In the phase of either solid or liquid, large amount of
toluenesulfonamide class substances including the mixtures of N-ethyl-o/p-toluene sulfonamides,
N-methyl-o/p-toluene sulfonamides and o/p-toluene sulfonamides are used as flow-promoting agents for
paints, adhesives, nitrocellulose, coating materials and as plasticizers for
polyamides and other thermosetting resins to increase flexibility. They promote
the resistance to oils, greases, and solvents. They are used as antistatic
agents and as gloss enhancers in plastic film preparations. They are used as
basic material of electroplating solutions. Toluenesulfonamides, or derivatives
thereof, are used as intermediate for a number of organic synthesis for the
field of pharmaceuticals, pesticides, dyes, pigments, fluorescent brighteners,
resins, and other organic target compound preparations. P-toluenesulphonamide is
used as the precursor of nitrogen-containing crown ethers as designated for the
1,7-dioxa-4,10-diazacyclododecane ring system. The use of p-toluenesulphonamide as a
derivative of ammonia activated to alkylation by alkyl halides is exemplified by
the synthesis of N-tosyl-2,3-dihydroisoindole from o-xylylene dibromide.
sulfonic acid is often used as a catalyst in the formation of acetal which water must be removed from the reaction mixture to
escape reversible reaction. Water is removed azeotropically
by distilation. (Toluene is the solvent).