2-BUTANOL

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

CAS NO. 78-92-2

2-BUTANOL

EINECS NO. 201-158-5
FORMULA CH3CH2CH(OH)CH3
MOL WT. 74.12
H.S. CODE  

TOXICITY

Oral rat LD50: 6200 mg/kg
SYNONYMS Methyl ethyl carbinol; 1-Methyl propanol;
Butan-2-ol; 2-Butyl alcohol; sec-Butyl alcohol; Butylene hydrate; Ethyl methyl carbinol; 2-Hydroxybutane;  1-Methylpropyl alcohol; SBA; Alcool butylique secondaire (French); Alcohol sec-butílico; Metiletilcarbinol (Spanish);

SMILES

 

CLASSIFICATION

 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL STATE clear
MELTING POINT -115 C
BOILING POINT 99 C
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 0.806
SOLUBILITY IN WATER

soluble

pH

 

VAPOR DENSITY 5.79
AUTOIGNITION

405 C

NFPA RATINGS Health: 3 Flammability: 0 Reactivity: 0

REFRACTIVE INDEX

1.3969
FLASH POINT

26 C

STABILITY

Stable under ordinary conditions

GENERAL DESCRIPTION & APPLICATIONS

2-Butanol, a four carbon secondary alcohol, is a volatile, clear liquid with a strong alcoholic odor; boils at 99 C, water solubility of 12.5%. This substance is most hazardous when peroxide levels are concentrated by distillation or evaporation. It is a highly refractive compound which corrode some plastics, and rubbers. It is miscible with many organic solvents, and incompatible with strong oxidizers. It is flammable strongly with a luminous flame. It is used as a direct solvent and as an intermediate in the manufacture of other organic chemicals (2-butanone). Uses include:
  • Solvent for paints, coatings, varnishes, resins, gums, camphor,  vegetable oils, dyes, fats, waxes, resins, shellac,  rubbers, and alkaloids, alkyd resins, lacquers, enamels, paint removers, and adhesives
  • Manufacture of industrial cleanners, perfumes, dyes, wetting agents
  • Formulating flotation agents and hydraulic brake fluids
  • Extraction of fish meal to produce fish protein concentrate and for the production of fruit essences.
  • Flavouring agent
SALES SPECIFICATION

APPEARANCE

clear

PURITY

99.0% min

ACIDITY

0.002 max ( KOH mg/kg)

WATER

100ppm max

COLOR (APHA)

15 max

TRANSPORTATION
PACKING 180kgs in Drum
HAZARD CLASS 3 (Packing Group: II)
UN NO. 1120
OTHER INFORMATION
European Hazard Symbols: XI, Risk Phrases: 10-36/37-67, Safety Phrases: 7/9-13-24/25-26-46

GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF ALCOHOL

Alcohols are widely used as solvents, fuels and chemical raw materials. Generally, hydroxyl group compounds are polar, which trends to promote solubility in water. But the carbon chain resist to solubility in water. Short chain alcohols (methanol, ethanol, and propanol) in which the hydroxyl group predominates are miscible in water. Butanol is moderately soluble because of the balance between the two opposing solubility trends. Higher alcohols are practically insoluble in water because of the hydrocarbon chain's trend is stronger. Alcohols are "protic" solvents. Protic refers to a hydrogen atom attached to an electronegative atom, oxygen. Polar protic solvents are compounds that can be represented by the general formula ROH of which water (H2O), methanol (CH3OH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) are examples. Water-soluble alcohols, low-molecular weight products, are solvents for the manufacture of coatings, dyes and inks, plastics, flavorings, personal-care products, pharmaceuticals, and cleaners. The higher alcohols, slightly soluble in water or insoluble, can provide the proper balance of target properties when solvent-based solvents are formulated for desired viscosity, flowing and leveling, and curing rate and can be used as coupling agents in waterborne coatings.

Alcohols are very weak acids as they lose H+ in the hydroxyl group. Alcohols undergoes dehydration reaction which means the elimination of water molecule  replaced by a pi bond between two adjacent carbon atoms to form alkenes under heating in the presence of strong acids like hydrocloric acid or phosphoric acid. Primary and secondary alcohols can be oxidized to aldehydes and ketones respectively. Carboxylic acids are obtained from oxidation of aldehydes. Oxidation in organic chemistry can be considered to be the loss of hydrogen or gain of oxygen and reduction to gain hydrogen or loss of oxygen. Tertiary alcohols do not react to give oxidation products as they have no H attached to the alcohol carbon. Alcohols undergoes important reactions called nucleophilic substitution in which an electron donor replaces a leaving group, generally conjugate bases of strong acids, as a covalent substitute of some atom. One of important reaction of alcohol is condensation. Ethers are formed by the condensation of two alcohols by heating with sulfuric acid; the reaction is one of dehydration. Almost infinite esters are formed through condensation reaction called esterification between carboxylic acid and alcohol, which produces water. Alcohols are important solvents and chemical raw materials. Alcohols are intermediates for the production of target compounds, such as pharmaceuticals, veterinary medicines, plasticizers, surfactants, lubricants, ore floatation agents, pesticides, hydraulic fluids, and detergents.

Carbinol is a primary alcohol with general formula RCH2OH. In carbinol nomenclature system, the term of carbinol is methanol itself and other groups are considered to have replaced one of the methanol hydrogen atoms to describe larger alcohols as derivatives of carbinol. This nomenclature system is particularly useful when the groups attached to the methanol carbon are large, aromatic, and cyclo groups. Benzyl alcohol is called phenylcarbinol or benzenecarbinol while benzyl carbinol is phenylethyl alcohol.