PHOSPHORUS PENTACHLORIDE

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

CAS NO. 10026-13-8

PHOSPHORUS PENTACHLORIDE

EINECS NO. 233-060-3
FORMULA PCl5
MOL WT. 208.24

H.S.CODE

2812.10
TOXICITY Oral rat LD50: 660 mg/kg
SYNONYMS Phosphorous (V) chloride; Pentachlorophosphorane;
phosphoric chloride; Phosphoric perchloride; 
SMILES
phosphorus with chlorine

CLASSIFICATION

 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

PHYSICAL STATE
pale yellow granular powder
MELTING POINT
148 C under pressure
BOILING POINT
160 C (sublimes)
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.6
SOLUBILITY IN WATER Decomposes exothermically
pH  
VISCOSITY  
VAPOR DENSITY 7.2

AUTOIGNITION

 

NFPA RATINGS

Health: 3 Flammability: 0 Reactivity: 2 Other: water reactive

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 
FLASH POINT none
STABILITY Stable under ordinary conditions

APPLICATIONS

Phosphorus Trichloride [Phosphorus(III) Chloride] is a clear to slightly yellow oily liquid that fumes in moist air; specific gravity 1.57; melting at -112 C; boiling at 75.5 C. It is soluble in benzene, ether, carbon disulphide and in carbon tetrachloride. It violently reacts with water to form phosphonic acid and hydrochloric acid. It is prepared by direct union of excess phosphorus with chlorine. (excess chlorine contaminates the product with phosphorus(V) chloride). The crude is then purified by distillation. Phosphorus(III) chloride is used to convert into phosphorus oxychloride. It reacts exothermically with alcohols (and phenol) to produce phosphite esters. It is used as an starting material for the synthesis of a variety of inorganic and organic phosphorus compounds used as pesticides, water treatment chemicals, flame retardants, phosphite antioxidants, plasticizers and stabilizers for plastic and elastomers, lube oil and paint additives.

Phosphorus Pentachloride [phosphorus(V) chloride] is a pale yellow solid that fumes in moist air; specific gravity 1.60; melting at 148 C under pressure; boiling at 160 C (sublimes). It is soluble in benzene, ether, carbon disulphide and in carbon tetrachloride. It is Nonflammable nor explosive. It is hydrolysed violently with water to form phosphonic acid, phosphorus oxychloride, and hydrochloric acid. It is prepared by direct union of phosphorus with excess chlorine. (excess phosphoru contaminates the product with phosphorus(III) chloride). Phosphorus(V) chloride is used to chlorinating agent and dehydrating agent for the synthesis of a variety of inorganic and organic phosphorus derivatives used as pesticides, water treatment chemicals, flame retardants, phosphite antioxidants, plasticizers and stabilizers for plastic and elastomers, lube oil and paint additives. It is also used as a catalyst in cyclization reaction. It is used to improve grain structure in metal casting.

Phosphoryl chloride, also called phosphorus oxychloride, contains the strong P=O solid bond. Phosphorus oxychloride is a colourless volatile liquid with a pungent odour; specific gravity 1.67; melting at 2 C; boiling at 105 C. The liquid reacts with water violently to produce hydrochloric and phosphoric acid. It reacts exothermically with alcohols and/or phenols to produce phosphate esters. Phosphorus oxychloride is produced by oxidizing phosphorus trichloride or by reacting phosphorus pentachloride with phosphorus pentoxide. It has a distorted tetrahedral shape and can act as a donor towards metal ions to give rise to a series of complexes. It is used in the manufacture of phosphate esters widely used in plasticizers, hydraulic fluids, lube oil additives, pesticides, and flame retardants. Triarylphosphate esters such as triphenyl phosphate and tricresyl phosphate are esters converted from phosphorus oxychloride. These esters are used as flame retardants and plasticisers. Tributyl phosphate ester is used as a liquid-liquid extraction solvent. Phosphorus oxychloride is used as a catalyst and chlorinating agent in the synthesis of target molecules.
SALES SPECIFICATION

APPEARANCE

pale yellow granular powder

ASSAY

99.0% min

PCl3

0.3% max

IRON

5ppm max

LEAD

5ppm max

TRANSPORTATION

PACKING

25kgs in bag

HAZARD CLASS 8
UN NO. 1806

DESCRIPTION OF PHOSPHORUS

Phosphorus is a nonmetallic chemical element in group 15 (nitrogen family, formerly Va) of periodic table; atomic number 15 atomic mass 30.9738; melting point ca 44.1 C (white); boiling point ca 280 C (white); specific gravity 1.82 (white), 2.34 (red), 2.70 (black); valence -3, +3, or +5 ; electronic config. 2-8-5 or 1s 22s 22p 63s 23p 3. The phosphorus molecule is composed of four phosphorus atoms, P4.  Phosphorus exists in a number of allotropic forms [white (alpha and beta), red, black and/or violet] in the same physical state. White phosphorus is a white to yellow waxy substance which ignites spontaneously in air to form white fumes of phosphorus pentoxide and glows without emitting heat. Phosphorus is stored underwater as it is extremely poisonous, insoluble in water (but soluble in carbon disulfide). Commercial production of elemental phosphorus is prepared from phosphorite or phosphate rock (apatite, an impure calcium phosphate mineral) reacting with coke and sand or silica pebbles or at high temperatures in an electric furnace. Calcium silicate is produced as a by-product. White phosphorus is used as a deoxidizing agent in the preparation of steel and phosphor bronze. It is also used in rat poisons and to make smoke screens (by burning) for warfare. When white phosphorus is heated to about 250 C with air absence, it changes into the red phosphorus. Red phosphorus, a dark reddish powder or crystal, does not ignite spontaneously  unless heated to 200 C, does not phosphoresce and it is a little less dangerous than white phosphorus. It is used to make matches. Red phosphorus is prepared commercially by heating calcium phosphate with sand and coke in an electric furnace. Black allotrope is obtained industrially by heating at 300 C under pressure with a mercury catalyst. It has a layer structure and is stable. The major use of phosphorus compounds is in fertilizers, mainly as a mixture called superphosphate (calcium hydrogen phosphate), obtained from phosphate minerals by sulfuric acid treatment; and in nitrophosphates. Phosphorus is burned to make phosphorus pentoxide [phosphorus(V) oxide], a white solid used as a chlorinating agent in organic chemistry, as a drying agent and mainly converted to phosphoric acid used to make phosphates for fertilizers, electro chemical polishing and shaping, electroplating, metal cleaning and pickling in metal treatment by reaction with water. Phosphorus is highly reactive. A wide range of compounds is formed for uses in detergents, water softeners, pharmaceuticals, dentifrices, and in many other important applications. It forms metal phosphides and covalently bonded phosphorus(III) and phosphorus(V) compounds. Phosphoric acid can combine with certain alkaline elements to form salts called phosphates.
OTHER INFORMATION