LITHIUM HYDRIDE

PRODUCT IDENTIFICATION

CAS NO. 7580-67-8 (Lithium hydride)
12339-13-8 (
Dilithium Hydride)

LITHIUM HYDRIDE

EINECS NO. 231-484-3
FORMULA LiH
MOL WT. 7.95

H.S. CODE

TOXICITY
SYNONYMS Lithiumhydrid (German); Hidruro de litio (Spanish);
Hydrure de lithium (French);
SMILES

 

CLASSIFICATION

 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES (99%)

PHYSICAL STATE White Powder
MELTING POINT 680 C
BOILING POINT Decomposes
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 2.639
SOLUBILITY IN WATER Reacts (Insoluble in alcohol and acetone)
pH  
VAPOR DENSITY  

AUTOIGNITION

 

NFPA RATINGS

Health: 2; Flammability: 0; Reactivity: 0

REFRACTIVE INDEX

 

FLASH POINT none
STABILITY Stable under ordinary conditions

GENERAL DESCRIPTION AND APPLICATIONS

Hydride is the isolated atomic hydrogen anion, H- or any compound containing hydrogen and another element, more electropositive element or group. Hydride consists of a singly charged positive nucleus and two electrons of which one electron is weakly held and readily donative ˇ°extraˇ±. There are some types of hydrides according to their bonding.
  • Ionic hydrides (saline hydrides): the hydrogen obtains an electron from a more electropositive metal, usually one of the alkali metals, to be an anion, H- , and behaves like a halogen. Ionic hydrides  react vigorously with water with removing hydrogen gas (H2). Compounds that have hydrogen and one other element only is called binary hydrides with general form of MH or MH2 such as sodium hydride (NaH), lithium hydride (LiH), calcium hydride (CaH2), magnesium hydride (MgH2).
  • Covalent hydrides: The hydrogen shares one or more pairs of electrons with more electronegative elements (such as boron and aluminium) or nonmetallic elements. Water, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), hydrocarbons (alkane, alkene and alkyne), and hydrazine belong to nonmetallic covalent hydrides which behave as molecules and are normally gas or volatile liquids. Hydrogen halides, boranes, silane, phosphines belong to covalent hydrides.
  • Metallic hydrides: They are alloylike materials which have individual properties of metals. Their bondings are vary from element to element.
  • Polymeric hydrides: the hydrogen has bridges forming three center bond with other atoms such as boron, aluminum, and beryllium.

Hydrides which carry hydrogen can provide large amounts of energy when burned. They can be used as an exotic fuel. They are less flammable and less volatile than hydrocarbon fuels. They are relatively environmentally friendly because they degrade quickly in the environment. Hydrides and hydrido complexes containing this easily polarized ion are highly reactive, strongly basic and powerfully reducing in synthetic reactions. They are important reducing agents in industrial reactions though they are easily destroyed in the relatively acidic compound water (H2O) and in air containing dioxygen (O2).

  • Lithium Hydride: flammable, white, translucent solids; decomposes at 850 C; reacts violently with water to yield hydrogen and lithium hydroxide; used as a hydrogen source or reducing agent to prepare other hydrides amides and 2H isotopic compound, as a shielding material for thermal neutrons.
SALES SPECIFICATION

APPEARANCE

white powder

ASSAY

99.0% min

WATER

0.1% max

SiO2

0.05% max

Cl

0.001% max

SO4

0.05% max

Na

0.1% max

Fe

0.01% max

Pb

0.001% max

Ca

0.05% max

TRANSPORTATION
PACKING 25kgs in bag
HAZARD CLASS 4.3 (Packing Group: I)
UN NO. 1414, 2805 
OTHER INFORMATION
European Hazard Symbols: F C, Risk Phrases: 14-34, Safety Phrases: 16-26-27-36/37/39
GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF LITHIUM AND ITS COMPOUNDS

Lithium is a soft, the lightest, silver-white, highly reactive metallic element in Group 1 of periodic table; atomic number 3; atomic mass 6.941; melting point ca 180.5 C; boiling point ca 1,342 C; specific gravity 0.534 g/cm3 valence +1; electronic config. 2-1 or 1s 22s 1. Lithium metal is prepared by the electrolysis of a molten mixture of potassium and lithium chlorides. It is used in various alloys with magnesium, copper, manganese, cadmium and aluminum to form a strong, low density material, as a heat transfer medium, in cooling system of nuclear reactor, and as a scavenger, in ceramics, glasses and in rocket fuel. Lithium forms many important inorganic and organic compounds such as;

Lithium Hydride (LiH): Flammable, white, translucent solids; decomposes at 850 °C; reacts violently with water to yield hydrogen and lithium hydroxide; used as a hydrogen source or reducing agent to prepare other hydrides amides and 2H isotopic compound, as a shielding material for thermal neutrons.

Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH); white, hygroscopic, crystalline material; soluble in water, slightly soluble in ethanol and insoluble in ether; there are commercially forms of monohydrate and anhydrous; used for purification of gases and air (as a carbon dioxide absorbent), as a heat transfer medium, as a storage-battery electrolyte, as a catalyst for polymerization, in ceramics, manufacturing other lithium compounds and esterfication specially for lithium stearate which is used as general purpose lubricating greases due to its high resistance to water and the useful at both high and low temperature.

Lithium Carbonate (Li2CO3) ; white granular powder; slight soluble in water, melts at 723°C, decomposes above 1310°C; It is prepared commercially by treating the ore with sulphuric acid at 250°C and leaching the product to give a solution of lithium sulphate. The carbonate is then obtained by precipitation with sodium carbonate solution; It is used as a flux in the aluminium, glass and ceramics production to improves the brightness of glazes and increases the firing range. It is a source of lithia, strong high temperature flux. It is used as an additive in cement industry to improve acceleration and fast setting process. It is used as an additive in floor screeds and tiles. It is used for the production of other lithium chemicals and organic compounds as a catalyst. Pharmaceutical grade of lithium carbonate is used for the primary treatment of depression and bipolar disorder.

Lithium Bromide (LiBr); white powder with a bitter taste; melts at 547°C, soluble in water, alcohol and glycol; used as an operating medium for air-conditioning and industrial drying system due to its very hygroscopic property. and as a sedative and hypnotic in medicine. It is also used in manufacturing pharmaceuticals and alkylation process. It is used as brazing and welding fluxes.

Lithium chloride; white hygroscopic deliquescent granule or powder having high melting point  at 614°C. Lithium chloride and bromide are the mostly proscopic materials used as a operating medium for air-conditioning and industrial drying system. It is used as brazing and welding fluxes. It is also used in as an intermediate for manufacturing other chemical compounds.

Lithium Fluoride  (LiF); white poisonous powder melting at 870°C, boiling at 1670°C; slightly soluble in water, soluble in acids but insoluble in alcohol; t is used as a flux in the aluminium, glass and ceramics production to improves the brightness of glazes and increases the firing range. It is used as a flux for brazing and welding of zirconium, titanium and magnesium. It is used as a heat-exchange medium.

Lithium Iodide  (LiI; LiI.3H2O) white to yellowish solid; soluble in water alcohol; there are commercially anhydrous form (melts at 446°C) and trihydrate form ( loses water at 72°C); It is used in organic synthesis, manufacturing medicines and mineral waters.

Lithium Stearate (LiC18H35O2); white crystalline powder derived from lithium hydroxide with cooking tallow (or other animal fat); melting at 220 C; used as general purpose lubricating greases providing high resistance to water and the useful at both high and low temperature, which have found extensive applications in the automotive, aircraft and heavy machinery industry. It is also applied as a stabilizer in cosmetics as well as plastic industry. It is used as a corrosion inhibitor in petroleum.

Lithium Molybdate  (Li2MoO4); white crystals melting at 705°C; soluble in water; used as a catalyst for petroleum cracking and as a mill additive for steel.

Lithia (Li2O); A white crystalline compound, melting at 1700°C. the main uses are in lubricating greases, ceramics, glass and refractories, and as a flux in brazing and welding.

Lithium Carbide (Li2C2);

Lithium Phosphate (Li3PO4);

Lithium Sulphate (Li2SO4); white crystalline material, soluble in water but insoluble in ethanol. It forms a monohydrate and an anhydrous form, The compound is prepared by the reaction of the hydroxide or carbonate with sulphuric acid.

Lithium Tetrahydridoaluminate (Lithal, LiAlH4); A powerful reducing agent in synthetic organic chemistry; aldehydes, esters and ketones to the corresponding alcohols. nitriles to primary amines.